Weather:

Weather Wobble

Jet Stream tornados

Siberian Freeze Weather Wobble

Wild weather , [2]

Wobble Clouds

Hurricane development

Violent Push

Weather & ocean currents

Europe Weather

Tides and Whirlpools:

Storm Clash whirlpools

Lurch of earth

Tides , [2]

Whirlpools

Wobble Sloshing

 



"We warned at the start of ZetaTalk, in 1995, that unpredictable weather extremes, switching about from drought to deluge, would occur and increase on a lineal basis up until the pole shift. Where this occurred steadily, it has only recently become undeniable. ZetaTalk, and only ZetaTalk, warned of these weather changes, at that early date. Our early warnings spoke to the issue of global heating from the core outward, hardly Global Warming, a surface or atmospheric issue, but caused by consternation in the core. Affected by the approach of Planet X, which was by then starting to zoom rapidly toward the inner solar system for its periodic passage, the core was churning, melting the permafrost and glaciers and riling up volcanoes. When the passage did not occur as expected in 2003 because Planet X had stalled in the inner solar system, we explained the increasing weather irregularities in the context of the global wobble that had ensued - weather wobbles where the Earth is suddenly forced under air masses, churning them. This evolved by 2005 into a looping jet stream, loops breaking away and turning like a tornado to affect the air masses underneath. Meanwhile, on Planet Earth, droughts had become more intractable and deluges positively frightening, temperature swings bringing snow in summer in the tropics and searing heat in Artic regions, with the violence of storms increasing in number and ferocity."

ZETATALK

 

From the ZetaTalk Chat Q&A for February 4, 2012:

 

The wobble seems to have changed, as the temperature in Europe suddenly plunged after being like an early Spring, Alaska has its coldest temps ever while the US and much of Canada is having an extremely mild winter. India went from fatal cold spell to balmy again. Has the Earth changed position vs a vs Planet X to cause this? [and from another] Bitter cold records broken in Alaska - all time coldest record nearly broken, but Murphy's Law intervenes [Jan 30] http://wattsupwiththat.com/2012/01/30/bitter-cold-records-broken-in-alaska Jim River, AK closed in on the all time record coldest temperature of -80°F set in 1971, which is not only the Alaska all-time record, but the record for the entire United States. Unfortunately, it seems the battery died in the weather station just at the critical moment. While the continental USA has a mild winter and has set a number of high temperature records in the last week and pundits ponder whether they will be blaming the dreaded "global warming" for those temperatures, Alaska and Canada have been suffering through some of the coldest temperatures on record during the last week.

There has been no change in the wobble pattern, the wobble has merely become more severe. Nancy noted a Figure 8 format when the Earth wobble first became noticeable, in early 2005, after Planet X moved into the inner solar system at the end of 2003. The Figure 8 shifted along to the east a bit on the globe between 2005 and 2009, (the last time Nancy took its measure) as Planet X came closer to the Earth, encountering the magnetic N Pole with a violent push earlier in the day. But the pattern of the Figure 8 remained essentially the same. So what changed recently that the weather patterns became noticeably different in late January, 2012?

The N Pole is pushed away when it comes over the horizon, when the noon Sun is centered over the Pacific. This regularly puts Alaska under colder air, with less sunlight, and thus the historically low temps there this January, 2012 as the wobble has gotten stronger. But by the time the Sun is positioned over India, the N Pole has swung during the Figure 8 so the globe tilts, and this tilt is visible in the weather maps from Asia. The tilt has forced the globe under the hot air closer to the Equator, warming the land along a discernable tilt demarcation line.

The next loop of the Figure 8 swings the globe so that the N Pole moves in the other direction, putting the globe again at a tilt but this time in the other direction. This tilt is discernable in weather maps of Europe, again along a diagonal line. Depending upon air pressure and temperature differences, the weather on either side of this diagonal line may be suddenly warm or suddenly cold. The tilt and diagonal line lingers to affect much of the US and Canada, but the Figure 8 changes at this point to be an up and down motion, pulling the geographic N Pole south so the US is experiencing a warmer than expected winter under a stronger Sun. Then the cycle repeats, with the magnetic N Pole of Earth pushed violently away again as the Sun is positioned over the Pacific.

 

From the ZetaTalk Chat Q&A for April 6, 2013:

 

Would the Zetas be able to let us know what is causing the early break-up of the Arctic Ice, the ice seems to have taken on a swirling pattern at the same time, would this be wobble related? [and from another] http://www.vancouversun.com/news/national/Canada+Arctic+cracks+spec... The ice in Canada’s western Arctic ripped open in a massive “fracturing event” this spring that spread like a wave across 1,000 kilometres of the Beaufort Sea. Huge leads of water – some more than 500 kilometres long and as much as 70 kilometres across – opened up from Alaska to Canada’s Arctic islands as the massive ice sheet cracked as it was pushed around by strong winds and currents. It took just seven days for the fractures to progress across the entire area from west to east. [and from another] http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=80752&src=iot... A high-pressure weather system was parked over the region, producing warmer temperatures and winds that flowed in a southwesterly direction. That fueled the Beaufort Gyre, a wind-driven ocean current that flows clockwise. The gyre was the key force pulling pieces of ice west past Point Barrow, the northern nub of Alaska that protrudes into the Beaufort Sea.


The Figure 8 formed by the N Pole during the daily Earth wobble has shifted somewhat to the East, due to Planet X positioned more to the right of the Earth during its approach. This was anticipated, and well described in ZetaTalk, the Earth crowding to the left in the cup to escape the approach of Planet X, so the angle between these two planets would change slightly. This shift of the Figure 8 to the East is due to the push against the Earth’s magnetic N Pole occurring sooner each day than prior. Thus instead of occurring when the Sun is high over the Pacific, over New Zealand, it is now occurring when the Sun is high over Alaska. All the wobble points have shifted eastward accordingly.

This has brought a lingering Winter to the western US, and a changed sloshing pattern to the Arctic waters. Instead of Pacific waters being pushed through the Bering Straits into the Arctic when the polar push occurs, the wobble is swinging the Arctic to the right, and then later to the left, creating a circular motion in the waters trapped in the Arctic. Since the Earth rotates counterclockwise, the motion also takes this path. This is yet another piece of evidence that the establishment is hard pressed to explain. They are attempting to ascribe this to high pressure and wind, all of which are not new to the Arctic, but this circular early breakup of ice in the Arctic is new.

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Comment by jorge namour 10 hours ago

Urgent
Arrival: accompanying storm extremely low temperatures in the governorate of Tripoli Libya now

And she's now heading to Cairo, Giza, and the rest of the governorates of Egypt

DECEMBER 3 2016

https://www.facebook.com/page.AlexNews/photos/pcb.716997615126232/7...


--------------------------------------------
Pictures ... Antelias in the heart of the storm! - LEBANON

https://translate.google.com/translate?sl=ar&tl=en&js=y&...

Like being in a Hollywood movie where the figurative or aliens invade the earth, but the fact that we are in Antelias, where he surprised a huge black cloud of citizens formed the strange phenomenon of its kind, covering a sky region and its days turned into darkness.

Comment by Stanislav 12 hours ago

Patagonian ice melts as Chile experiences its worst drought on record

3 December, 2016. Chile is experiencing its most extensive drought in history, and this year is set to become its driest in more than 40 years. In the southern region of Patagonia farmers are feeling the pressure as weather patterns change.

2016 is on track to become the warmest year on record while Chile is already experiencing its most extensive drought in history. For a country that relies heavily on its livestock and agriculture, the prolonged natural disaster is cause for concern.

In the secluded rural town of Puerto Prat, situated in Patagonia in southern Chile, 81-year-old sheep farmer Carmen Santana-Flores has been experiencing first hand the devastating effects of the drought. 

"Water has always been a problem, but not like today, now there is total lack of water," she told SBS.

Patagonian sheep farmer Carmen Santana-Flores.

Eighty-one-year-old Patagonian sheep farmer Carmen Santana-Flores says this is the worst drought she has seen.

This year is set to become Chile’s driest in more than 40 years and tops off seven years of continuous drought, and it’s not only livestock that Ms Santana-Flores is losing out on.

"We used to have potatoes and all sorts of vegetables, we planted everything" she said, "you have to buy everything now because you can’t sow in the ground".

A few hundred kilometres away, on a property just outside of Punta Arenas, alpaca farmer Sergio Diaz reminisces on snowfalls of the past.

"It used to snow a lot more, any amount of snow, sometimes up to four metres in height!" he said.

Back in the 1970s, Mr Diaz worked across a number of properties with a variety of animals.

Chile, Patagonia, glacier ice melt

The normally ice cold region is experiencing increasing warm weather and ever shortening winters as a result of climate change.

"The ponds were so full that I would dig trenches for water streams and the cows and sheep would swarm like flies to get their share!"

The farmers are not completely without support, with the Chilean Government's INDAP service, created in 1962 and run by the Ministry of Agriculture, aimed at productive and rural development, helping remote farmers with the delivery of water.

Alpaca farmer Sergio Diaz say in the 1970s, ‘It used to snow a lot more, any amount of snow, sometimes up to four metres in height!’

Alpaca farmer Sergio Diaz say in the 1970s, ‘It used to snow a lot more, any amount of snow, sometimes up to four metres in height!’

Both Sergio and Carmen work on properties in the Magallanes region, which is one of the most isolated areas of Chile. It sits in the greater Patagonia, a vast and rugged terrain that encompasses the southern most part of South America and is the closest large landmass to Antarctica.

Here the drought is is also having significant affects on the environment, Patagonia boasts some of the world’s largest glaciers and experts believe the regions vast ice shelves may be starving to death

Patagonia, Chile glacier ice melt

As temperatures continue to rise scientist fear the regions glaciers are doomed.

Nicolás Butorovic, a specialist in academic climatology from the Institute of Patagonia University in Punta Arenas, said years of research has revealed extreme weather patterns and global warming are taking their toll on the Patagonian environment.

"In the last perhaps 10 winters, it has been less cold, which does not mean that they are warm, we aren’t in a tropical climate, but they are also very short winters that generally last between 1-3 months," he said.

To establish a standard conclusion on climate change and global warming, the World Meteorological Organisation requires a minimum 30 years of data. The Jorge C. Schythe station, where Mr Butorovic and his team works, has measured and recorded most surface meteorological parameters for the past 46 years. A recent summer in Punta Arenas that hit record temperatures of 29 degrees is testimony to changing weather patterns he said.

Patagonia is in the grip of a seven year drought, the worst in recorded history.

Patagonia is in the grip of a seven year drought, the worst in recorded history.

While the residents of the typically freezing cold, ocean side city enjoy the warm weather, he urged people to consider the future.

"We have to be careful and keep an eye on what can produce harmful effects both for the population and the vegetation. A clear example of climate change in this zone has been shown with these extreme events."

Although the region is withstanding the drought, but Mr Butorovic said that the current trends indicate that for the next three to fivemonths, the Magallanes region will not see much rain at all. Source: sbs.com.au

Comment by Stanislav yesterday

November brings record-breaking temperatures from Nunavut to Siberia

A white-throated sparrow feeds on birdseed Nov. 30 in Rankin Inlet, when the temperature stood at about minus 3 C. (PHOTO BY PUTULIK PHOTOGRAPHY)

1 December, 2016. In many Nunavut communities, chances are you traded your parka for a jacket during the month of November.

During November, monthly average temperatures in Nunavut’s central Kivalliq region ranged from 4.1 C higher in Naujaat to 8.2 C higher in Arviat—and sparrows, usually long-gone from Rankin Inlet, were still around.

People in that community of roughly 3,000, who saw rotating power outages this week after its diesel turbines needed major repairs, fortunately enjoyed those milder-than-usual higher temperatures. These were as mild as about minus 3 C—much higher than the normal high temperatures of minus 18 C for this time of the year.

And, in Arviat, the puddles reminded residents of spring, not of the usually cold, dark month leading into winter.

This map by Patrick Duplessis, a PhD student in Physics and Atmospheric Science at Dalhousie University, shows some of the hot spots across the North during November. (IMAGE BY P.DUPLESSIS/TWITTER)

On Nov. 30, it was just a little below freezing in Arviat—minus 1.5 C. That high temperature beat the previous record high for that day of minus 4.6 C set in 1986. The day’s low of minus 2.6 C was also much higher than the record low of minus 33 C set in 1991.

On Nov. 30, the western Nunavut Kitikmeot community of Gjoa Haven, where the temperatures averaged 6.5 C higher in November, you could also say it was really warm: The minus 3.4 C temperature on Nov. 30 beat the record of minus 9.5 C set in 1987, and Gjoa Haven’s daily low of minus 9.3 C was much higher than 1991’s record-breaking low of minus 37.5 C for Nov. 30.

Nov. 30 also broke record highs:

• Baker Lake—minus 2.9 C

• Naujaat—minus 4 C

• Taloyoak—minus 4.2 C

• Kugaaruk—minus 3.2 C

• Igloolik—8.7 C

• Arctic Bay—minus 9.1 C

• Resolute Bay—minus 8.9 C

• Eureka—minus 11.9 C

The warmth also circled the Arctic Ocean, which, around the pole, was itself up to 20 C warmer than usual during much of November.

In Greenland, the famed Sirius dog team patrol hasn’t started to carry out its long-range reconnaissance patrolling yet because it’s too warm.

And the Russian Arctic and Norwegian Arctic have never been so warm in November reports the Independent Barents Observer— at least according to existing records.

On Norway’s Svalbard Islands, temperatures averaged 10.7 C higher than normal, while weather measurements across the top of Siberia showed temperatures up to 14 C higher than normal.

Temperatures weren’t the only unusual measurements in the Arctic which were off during November.

Both Arctic and Antarctic daily sea ice extents remain the lowest on record in the satellite era—a period of about 35 years.

In November, European Space Agency’s CryoSat satellite measurements show the Arctic sea ice matching record lows from 2011 and 2012.

And Arctic ice growth, say climate watchers, is slower and lower this year. Even though Arctic sea ice extent growth increased over this past week, it’s still at a record low for date.

In Hudson Bay, ice formation stands at about 40 per cent below normal, according to the Canadian Ice Service. Source: nunatsiaqonline.ca

Comment by Stanislav yesterday

U.S. daily record highs beat record lows by a staggering 51-to-1 ratio in November

November 2016 temperature anomalies in North America.

1 December, 2016. As the planet warms in response to the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the ratio of high temperature records compared to low temperature records has become more skewed. If the climate were not warming, that long-term ratio should average out to about 1-to-1.

However, that is not the world we're living in. A 2009 study found that the record highs to lows ratio was 2-to-1 for the lower 48 states during the 2000s, and this disparity has only grown since then. Projections show the imbalance increasing in coming decades as global warming continues.

Keeping in mind that individual months show considerable variability in weather patterns, it's clear that over the long-term, the ratio of record highs to record lows is now strongly favoring record highs as well as record warm overnight temperatures. This is consistent with computer model projections of a warming world.

No individual month shows this better - and to a ridiculous degree - than November 2016.

New, preliminary numbers from the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) show that during November, the ratio of record highs (4401) to record lows (87) was a shocking 51-to-1.

According to Guy Walton, a former Weather Channel meteorologist who meticulously tracks these records, this year is on track to have the lowest tally of record low temperatures since 1922 and the highest ratio of daily record highs to lows - at about 6.6-to-1 .

Comparing the number of temperature records has some limitations, but the ratios are more accurate in reflecting how the U.S. has warmed in recent decades, according to Deke Arndt, chief of climate monitoring at the NCEI in Asheville, North Carolina.

"Because the number and lifetimes of weather stations has varied over time, comparing raw numbers of records does not completely capture the signal," he said. "Using a ratio of warm-to-cold records helps account for these effects."

All of North America, including Canada, had an unusually warm November, with many cities in the Midwest, Alberta and other Canadian provinces setting records for the warmest November on record.

A Nov. 21 study published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found that by midcentury, the ratio of record daily high temperatures to record daily lows will likely be about 15-to-1, depending on the pace of greenhouse gas emissions.

December promises to be far colder in these areas as the weather pattern changes from the Pacific Ocean across North America, though it is unclear whether record highs will still outnumber record lows.

Globally, 2016 is on pace to set a record for the warmest year since at least 1880, beating the milestone set last year.

The warm year has seen a host of extreme events linked to global warming, including catastrophic flooding in Louisiana and North Carolina, a worldwide coral bleaching event that devastated parts of Australia's Great Barrier Reef as well as other impacts. Source: mashable.com

Comment by SongStar101 yesterday

Get ready for the big freeze! Western half of US to be hit with temperatures of up to 30 degrees colder than normal after Alaska experiences bone-chilling lows of minus 41F

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3990910/Record-cold-strike-...

  • Forecasters expect the record-setting cold weather plaguing Alaska to spread to the rest of the United States in the coming week
  • Low temperatures have already set in The Last Frontier State, which is witnessing its coldest weather in almost two years 
  • Just this week, temperatures in Fairbanks reached minus 41F,  ending a 624-day stretch of warmer weather
  • Forecast models say the bitter conditions could spread east next week 

Comment by SongStar101 yesterday

Cold air mass covers Alaska and temperatures plummet to well below average

https://www.adn.com/alaska-news/weather/2016/11/30/cold-air-mass-co...

A cold snap is chilling Alaskans statewide, dropping the temperatures to well below normal, a trend forecasters expect to last about another week.

The National Weather Service announced the arrival of winter temperatures in a string of social media posts since the beginning of the week. It noted, however, that nearly all of Alaska is cooler than usual for this time of year.

Anchorage saw a high temperature of 8 degrees and a low, recorded at midnight, of 2 degrees on Wednesday. The normal high temperature for Nov. 30 in the city is 25 degrees, said Anchorage-based weather service forecaster Matthew Clay.

"That right there tells you it's pretty cold outside compared to what we're usually used to," Clay said.

Also of note for the Anchorage area, snowfall is predicted to begin Wednesday night and continue off and on through Thursday afternoon, possibly bringing 1 to 3 inches of snow.

The double-digit differences from the normal high and low temperatures are also being recorded in all other regions of the state.

Fairbanks' low temperature on Wednesday was minus-26 degrees, 17 degrees below the average low of minus-9, according to the weather service. A day earlier, a warmer but still bone-chilling low of minus-21 ended a 658-day stretch of highs above minus-10.

Bethel and other Alaska Peninsula communities have been hit the hardest.

"Bethel's high was minus-13 degrees. The normal high is 20 degrees, which puts them 33 degrees below normal," Clay said.

The southwestern hub is experiencing lower than normal temperatures like the rest of the state, but wind gusts of up to 40 mph make it feel minus-30 to minus-45 degrees outside.

Frost clings to bushes and trees along Eklutna Tailrace on Old Glenn Highway near Palmer. The area saw mostly clear skies and temperatures around zero degrees for much of Tuesday. (Marc Lester / Alaska Dispatch News)

A cold snap is chilling Alaskans statewide, dropping the temperatures to well below normal, a trend forecasters expect to last about another week.

The National Weather Service announced the arrival of winter temperatures in a string of social media posts since the beginning of the week. It noted, however, that nearly all of Alaska is cooler than usual for this time of year.

Anchorage saw a high temperature of 8 degrees and a low, recorded at midnight, of 2 degrees on Wednesday. The normal high temperature for Nov. 30 in the city is 25 degrees, said Anchorage-based weather service forecaster Matthew Clay.

"That right there tells you it's pretty cold outside compared to what we're usually used to," Clay said.

Also of note for the Anchorage area, snowfall is predicted to begin Wednesday night and continue off and on through Thursday afternoon, possibly bringing 1 to 3 inches of snow.

The double-digit differences from the normal high and low temperatures are also being recorded in all other regions of the state.

Fairbanks' low temperature on Wednesday was minus-26 degrees, 17 degrees below the average low of minus-9, according to the weather service. A day earlier, a warmer but still bone-chilling low of minus-21 ended a 658-day stretch of highs above minus-10.

Bethel and other Alaska Peninsula communities have been hit the hardest.

"Bethel's high was minus-13 degrees. The normal high is 20 degrees, which puts them 33 degrees below normal," Clay said.

The southwestern hub is experiencing lower than normal temperatures like the rest of the state, but wind gusts of up to 40 mph make it feel minus-30 to minus-45 degrees outside.

Michael Riley, with Bethel Search and Rescue, said the community hasn't experienced weather so harsh for at least two winters.

"The temperatures, like minus-14, aren't that bad, but the wind makes it extremely cold and very dangerous for everyone outside," Riley said. "We haven't seen this type of weather for quite some time and people don't appear to be as well-acquainted with it anymore."

Comment by jorge namour on Thursday

FACEBOOK Alex New - News Alexandria - EGYPT

DECEMBER 1 2016

https://www.facebook.com/page.AlexNews/photos/a.541303892695606.107...

TRADUCED

A while ago. - SUPER CELL CLOUD in Alexandria.

From a link: Alexandria FLOODS

Met "warns: severe rains hit limit torrents until tomorrow

Comment by SongStar101 on Wednesday

Snow falls in November in Tokyo for first time in 54 years

http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2016/11/24/snow-falls-nove...

November 24, 2016

TOKYO — Tokyo residents woke up Thursday to the first November snowfall in more than 50 years. And the Japan Meteorological Agency said it was the first time fallen snow on the ground was observed in November since such records started to be taken in 1875.

An unusually cold air mass brought wet snow to Japan’s capital. Above-freezing temperatures kept the snow from sticking in most places, though it did accumulate on sidewalks and cars in Tokyo’s far western suburbs.

Meteorologists forecast up to 2 centimeters (1 inch) would fall, and more in the mountains northwest of Tokyo.

The snow caused minor train delays during the morning commute.

The last time it snowed in central Tokyo in November was 1962.

Prior to Thursday, the earliest time that snow had accumulated on the ground in the winter season was on Dec. 6, 1987, according to the agency.

The agency monitors various esoteric weather indicators, Japanese-style, such as announcing when cherry blossoms have started to bloom by observing a certain tree. The benchmark “sakura” tree for Tokyo grows in Yasukuni Shrine, which has drawn controversy because it honors all Japanese soldiers who died in war, including war criminals.

The first snowfall is “hatsuyuki,” which literally translated to “first snow.” Snow on the ground is called “sekisetsu,” and declared when more than half a designated area in Tokyo, called Kitanomaru, turns white, the agency said.

Japanese culture is especially sensitive to the changing seasons. Haiku, for instance, must include words that denote spring, summer, fall or winter.

Comment by SongStar101 on Wednesday

Below zero? Snow covers sand in Saudi regions

http://english.alarabiya.net/en/News/gulf/2016/11/27/Below-zero-Sno...

White and brown merged into one color as snow covered the desert sand in central and northwestern regions in Saudi Arabia after temperatures dropped below zero Celsius.

In the central city of Shakra’ and the northwestern city of Tabuk, thin layers of snow carpeted the ground. In Tabarjal, a town located in the northern Al-Jawf region temperatures reached -3 Celsius, and in Al-Quryat, a northern province, the temperature was -1 Celsius.

Rainfall continues

While mid-October usually marks the short-lived peak for Saudi Arabia’s rainfall season, the kingdom is still experiencing light to medium showers. Saudi Arabia on Friday witnessed medium to heavy rainfall with many Saudis posted photos and videos of their cities under the rain.

Light to medium rainfall also continued in eastern Saudi Arabia on Saturday.

Professor Abdallah al-Musanad, professor of climate science at Qassim University, told Alarabiya.net, that rainfall is expected by the end of this week in all of western, eastern and central Saudi Arabia.

He said this is “the second rainfall this season,” even though 40 days have passed since the end of rain season.

On Saturday, Malija city and Al-Nairiya province in eastern Saudi experienced medium rainfall. Al-Nairiya’s head of traffic police Fahad Mohammed Al-Hakbani asked drivers to take extra care during rain and not to drive through valleys, especially during floods.

In April last year, 18 people were killed throughout Saudi Arabia because of floods following heavy rain.

Municipalities in the eastern cities of Dammam, Dhahran, Khobar and Qatif are expected to use drainage stations and tanks to collect rain and keep the streets dry.

Comment by Stanislav on Wednesday

Shrinking glaciers cause state-of-emergency drought in Bolivia

28 November, 2016. The government of Bolivia, a landlocked country in the heart of South America, has been forced to declare a state of emergency as it faces its worst drought for at least 25 years.

Much of the water supply to La Paz, the highest capital city in the world, and the neighbouring El Alto, Bolivia’s second largest city, comes from the glaciers in the surrounding Andean mountains.

But the glaciers are now shrinking rapidly, illustrating how climate change is already affecting one of the poorest countries in Latin America.

The three main dams that supply La Paz and El Alto are no longer fed by runoff from glaciers and have almost run dry. Water rationing has been introduced in La Paz, and the poor of El Alto – where many are not yet even connected to the mains water supply – have staged protests.

The armed forces are being brought in to distribute water to the cities, emergency wells are being drilled, and schools will have to close two weeks ahead of the summer break.

President Evo Morales sacked the head of the water company for not warning him earlier of the dangerous situation, but the changes produced by global warming have been evident for some time.

Shrinking snowline
A recent report by the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) says: “Temperatures in the region have risen by 0.5C (0.9F) in the period 1976 to 2006, and the people of La Paz and El Alto can observe evidence of climate change in the form of the shrinking snowline in the mountains above them.

One glacier on Chacaltaya mountain – which rises above El Alto and which once hosted the world’s highest ski resort – has already completely disappeared. And the two Tuni-Condoriri glaciers that provide water for El Alto and La Paz lost 39% of their area between 1983 and 2006 – at a rate of 0.24 sq km per year.”

The SEI says that if the regional and global climate models that predict a two-degree rise in temperatures by 2050 are right, many small glaciers will completely disappear, while others will shrink dramatically.

It warns: “Glaciers are estimated to provide 20% to 28% of water for El Alto and La Paz. Therefore glacier loss will have a considerable impact, which will be felt particularly during the dry season, when glacial water provides the majority of urban water.

“The glaciers and mountain water systems also support agriculture, power generation and natural ecosystems throughout the region.”

The problem is exacerbated in El Alto, a sprawling settlement of more than a million people who have migrated from the countryside.

The city’s population grew by at least 30% between 2001 and 2012, and the city’s land area has rapidly expanded by 144% in the last decade, spreading into the flat open countryside to the south and west. By 2050, the population is expected to double to two million people.

The SEI believes that one of the causes of this increased influx into the city will be climate change. It says: “Evidence from El Alto’s history indicates that the fastest periods of population growth coincided with droughts, floods and bad harvests associated with the meteorological phenomena of El Niño and La Niña.

“The years 1985 to 1987, when migration into El Alto reached heights of 65,000 new immigrants, were also years of poor harvests.” Source: theguardian.com

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