# 3600: Proof in the Numbers

"The number 3600 was written in Sumerian as a large circle. The epithet for the planet also meant 'a perfect circle' or 'a completed cycle'. It also meant the number 3600." -  Zecharia Sitchin, The 12th Planet

"The ancient Sumerian's got their information from the Annunaki, whose home planet Nibiru makes a passage approximately every 3,657 years, by our count."  ZetaTalk

Sumerian mathematics has been interpreted to operate on a sexagesimal system, suggesting it was based on the number 60.  This complex mathematical system dating back well before 3000 BC has mostly evaded understanding by those tasked with defining it.

The Babylonian civilization that supplanted Sumerian and Akkadian culture around 2000 BC also used this system to perform astronomical calculations whose influence remains with us today.  That our measurements of time and circularity are defined by subsets of 60 whose base summation equals 3600 is not by happenstance.

Why the Sumerians picked 60 as the base of their numbering system is the subject of conjecture among scholars, yet the reason is obvious to those with eyes to see.  As the Zetas have explained, this methodology was not developed by the Sumerians but by the Anunnaki for gauging time relative to the return of their home planet. Thus, Sumerian mathematics was not based on the number 60, but rather 3600.

THE 3600 CLUB

In addition to the compelling evidence found in Sumerian mathematics, recurring cataclysms visited upon the Earth every 3,600 years is demonstrably evident by the archeological evidence of mass extinctions and collapsed civilizations.

image source

"The Mastodon [or mammoth] is a species that went extinct during the past few pole shifts, primarily when the grasslands they browsed in Siberia were drawn rapidly into the new polar circle."  ZetaTalk

"In 1797 the body of a mammoth, with flesh, skin, and hair, was found in northeastern Siberia. The flesh had the appearance of freshly frozen beef; it was edible, and wolves and sled dogs fed on it without harm. The ground must have been frozen ever since the day of their entombment; had it not been frozen, the bodies of the mammoths would have putrefied in a single summer, but they remained unspoiled for some thousands of years. In some mammoths, when discovered, even the eyeballs were still preserved.

"This shows that the cold became suddenly extreme .. and knew no relenting afterward. In the stomachs and between the teeth of the mammoths were found plants and grasses that do not grow now in northern Siberia .. (but are) .. now found in southern Siberia. Microscopic examination of the skin showed red blood corpuscles, which was proof not only of a sudden death, but that the death was due to suffocation either by gases or water."

- Immanuel Velikovsky, Earth in Upheaval

"A population of Woolly Mammoths greatly reduced in size are known to have lived on the island of Wrangel, which lies within the Arctic Circle off the coast of Northern Russia. Carbon isotope dating indicates that these Woolly Mammoths died out 1650 years BC, the most recent date attributed to the extinction of any Mammoth population."  Source

The mummified remains of the frozen calf "Lyuba" - one of several woolly mammoths discovered with food at various stages of digestion in their mouth and intestines.  Source

The famous Beresovka Mammoth, discovered in 1901 along the Beresovka River.  Note that this mammoth is stuffed and not a model - the remains were flash frozen and very well preserved allowing taxidermy.  Source

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The End of the Supe, Peru

"Nature turned against one of America's early civilizations 3,600 years ago, when researchers say earthquakes and floods, followed by blowing sand, drove away residents of an area that is now in Peru.

"Anthropologist Mike Moseley said: ‘They had no incentive to change, and then all of a sudden, boom, they just got the props knocked out from under them.’

"Moseley and colleagues were studying civilization of the Supe Valley along the Peruvian coast, which was established up to 5,800 years ago. The people thrived on land adjacent to productive bays and estuaries. The Supe fished with nets, irrigated fruit orchards and grew cotton and a variety of vegetables. They also built stone pyramids thousands of years before the better known Mayans. But the Supe disappeared about 3,600 years ago. A massive earthquake, or series of quakes, struck the region, collapsing walls and floors and launching landslides from barren mountain ranges surrounding the valley. In addition, layers of silt indicate massive flooding followed.

"Then came a change in the winds and currents in the Pacific Ocean, which brought heavy rains that damaged irrigation systems and washed debris into the streams and down to the ocean, where the sand and silt settled into a large ridge, sealing off the previously rich coastal bays. In the end, land where the Supe had lived for millenia became uninhabitable and their society collapsed."  Source

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Santorini and the Demise of the Minoan Civilization

"The last major explosion of Santorini occurred 3,600 years ago. The thunderous fury of nature left its mark on the island, the home of Greece's last active volcano which still smolders today. The entire center of the circular island sank into the sea during the tremendous volcanic explosion. The eruption caused tidal waves which virtually wiped out the advanced Minoan Civilization of Crete, 70 miles to the south.

"The huge mass of pumice thrown out from this eruption covered the surface of the sea over a wide region and was washed up at higher levels on the shores by the tsunamis triggered by earthquakes."  Source

"In Amnissos, the port of Knossos, scientists examined findings that contained ash, marine species, cattle bones, floor and wall plaster, pumice and seashells. They figured out immediately that this could be explained only by a massive and sudden inflow of water. The only way they could have been deposited on the land of Crete was by a tsunami. The tidal wave caused by Santorini Volcano traveled and hit the shores of Crete, destroying the plantations, the crops, the ships and commerce, devitalizing and deviating the Minoan Civilization. The Minoan ports and infrastructures were destroyed by the 50 feet waves and were never rebuilt.

"Using radio carbon techniques they compared the geological findings with the eruption era and the conclusion was horrifying: not only one, but several successive tsunamis, of more than 50 feet (15m) were hitting the Cretan shores, every thirty minutes."  Source

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Additional evidence of past cataclysms on a 3600 year cycle:

Prior Pole Shifts, 2 BACK

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Join Earth Changes and the Pole Shift

Comment by Howard on February 5, 2016 at 4:02am

Massive Population Crash in Europe Over 14,500 Years Ago (Feb 4)

New evidence shows a whole group of Europeans vanished, replaced by people of unknown origins (4 pole shifts back)

Europe wasn't a very hospitable place fifteen millennia ago. The westernmost landmass of the Eurasian continent had endured a long ice age, with glaciers stretching across northern Europe and into the region we now call Germany. But suddenly, about 14,500 years ago, things started to warm up quickly. The glaciers melted so fast around the globe that they caused sea levels to rise 52 feet in just 500 years. Meanwhile, the environment was in chaos, with wildlife trying vainly to adjust to the rapid fluctuations in temperature. Humans weren't immune to the changes, either.

A new, comprehensive analysis of ancient European DNA published today in Current Biology magazine by an international group of researchers reveals that this period also witnessed a dramatic shift in the human populations of Europe. Bloodlines of hunter-gatherers that had flourished for thousands of years disappeared, replaced with a new group of hunter-gatherers of unknown origin.

Researchers discovered this catastrophic population meltdown by sequencing the mitochondrial DNA of 35 people who lived throughout Europe between 35 and 7 thousand years ago. Mitochondrial DNA is a tiny amount of genetic material that's inherited virtually unchanged via the maternal line, and thus it serves as a good proxy for relatedness over time. Two people from the same maternal stock share almost the same mitochondrial DNA, even if separated by thousands of years, because this kind of DNA evolves very slowly.

It's long been known that two such related groups, called M clade and N clade, poured out of Africa and across the Eurasian continent about 55 thousand years ago. Some of these people wandered so far that they even made it to Australia, eventually. And yet something rather odd happened to the people of Europe. Only members of the N clade survived into the present day, while Asia, Australia, and the Americas are full of the offspring of both N and M. Until the new study in Current Biology, scientists believed that the most likely explanation was that roughly 45 thousand years ago, Europe was colonized solely by the N clade, while both clades settled elsewhere around the world.

But thanks to sequencing the mitochondrial DNA in those 35 ancient people, the researchers uncovered something previously unknown. There were, in fact, people from the M clade alive in Europe as recently as 25 thousand years ago. But something happened to wipe them out during the cold, dry glacial maximum that gripped the world between 25 and 14.5 thousand years ago.

In this image, you can see the clades of the people who the team sequenced, and how they fared over time. The R and U clades are all descended from the N clade. Note that M is present until 25 thousand years ago, when the ice age begins.

"Tracing the North Pole over the past few shifts, one sees that it spent a time over Scandinavia where it resided between the 4th and 5th shift back. When it moved from Scandinavia into the Arctic north of Siberia, Europe warmed up, its glaciers melting." ZetaTalk: Wandering Poles

Source

http://arstechnica.com/science/2016/02/there-was-a-massive-populati...

Comment by Starr DiGiacomo on October 29, 2014 at 6:14pm

http://themindunleashed.org/2014/10/500-year-old-map-shatters-offic...

# The 500 Year Old Map that Shatters the Official History of the Human Race

on 25 October, 2014 at 05:44

Buck Rogers | If conventional wisdom on the history of the human race is correct, then human civilization is not old enough, nor was it advanced enough, to account for many of the mysterious monolithic and archeological sites around the world. Places like Gobekli Tepe in Turkey, the Bosnian Pyramids, and Adam’s Calendar in South Africa, beg the same question: if human civilization is supposedly not old enough to have created all of these sites, then who, or what, had the capacity to create so many elaborate structures around the globe?

It is clear that our understanding of our own history is incomplete, and there is plenty of credible evidence pointing to the existence of intelligent and civilized cultures on Earth long before the first human cultures emerged from the Middle East around 4000BC. The Admiral Piri Reis world map of 1513 is part of the emerging more complete story of our history, one that challenges mainstream thinking in big ways.

Mapmaking is a complex and civilized task, thought to have emerged around 1000BC with the Babylonian clay tablets. Antarctica was officially first sighted by a Russian expedition in 1820 and is entirely covered in ice caps thought to have formed around 34-45 million years ago. Antarctica, therefore, should not be seen on any map prior to 1820, and all sighted maps of Antarctica should contain the polar ice caps, which are supposedly millions of years old.

A world map made by Ottoman cartographer and military admiral, Piri Reis, casts some doubt on what we think we know about ancient civilization.

The Piri Reis map, which focuses on Western Africa, the East Coast of South America, and the North Coast of Antarctica, features the details of a coastline that many historians and geologists believe represents Queen Maud Land, that is, Antarctica. Remarkably, as represented in this map, the frigid continent was not covered in ice caps, but, rather, with dense vegetation. How could a map drawn in 1513 feature a continent that wasn’t discovered until 1820? And if the continent had in fact been discovered by one of the civilizations known to have emerged after 4000BC, why were the ice caps not on the map?

The paradoxes presented by the map were of little significance to the world until Charles Hapgood, a history professor from New Hampshire, USA, claimed that the information in the Piri Reis map supported a different view of geology and ancient history. Hapgood believed that the map verified his global geological theory, which explains how portions of Antarctica could have remained ice-free until 4000BC.

Hapgood’s presentation is so convincing that even famed theoretical physicist and philosopherAlbert Einstein wrote the following supportive forward to a book that Hapgood wrote in 1953:

“His idea is original, of great simplicity, and – if it continues to prove itself – of great importance to everything that is related to the history of the Earth’s surface.” -Albert Einstein

Unquestionably not a hoax, the map is certifiably authentic, but the information on the map is of mysterious origin. Piri Reis himself notes that the map was drawn from information sourced from other, older maps, charts and logs, many of which, Hapgood suggests, may have been copied and transcribed repeatedly since before the destruction of the Library of Alexandria in Egypt, which wiped out the literature of antiquity and vast cultural knowledge.

This hypothesis opens the door to the possibility that some forgotten ancient civilization had the capacity to voyage to the Antarctic, charting the earth, with the technology to make maps, sometime before the ice caps formed. A significant departure from our present understanding of our history.

The absence of the ice caps in the Piri Reis map is peculiar, and in 1960 Hapgood brought his theories on this to the attention of the United States Air Force. Hapgood asked, among other things, if the shape of the continent, as it appeared on the Piri Reis map, was at all similar to the shape of the continent under the ice, as revealed by recent Air Force testing of seismic data on the continent. Their answer was astonishing:

“…the geographical detail shown in the lower part of the map agrees very remarkably with the results of the seismic profile made across the top of the ice-cap by the Swedish-British Antarctic Expedition of 1949.

This indicates the coastline had been mapped before it was covered by the ice-cap.

The ice-cap in this region is now about a mile thick.

We have no idea how the data on this map can be reconciled with the supposed state of geographical knowledge in 1513.

Harold Z. Ohlmeyer
Lt. Colonel, USAF
Commander”

If Hapgood’s theory has merit, as even Einstein believed, then there was a period of time from around 13000BC to 6000BC when Antarctica was located more closely to the equator and was more tropical in climate, much like parts of South America. This was caused by a sudden shift of the earth’s entire lithosphere, he theorized, simultaneously moving all of the continents into their present position, a much different view than the widely accepted explanation offered the plate tectonics theory.

If Antarctica had indeed been further North then than it presently is, and was not covered in ice only as recently as 6000BC, then who was around back then that could have mapped it, long before any known civilizations? And who could have done so long before the advent of the marine chronometer in the 18th century, which finally solved the problem of accurately tracking longitude on the high seas?

Had the entire Earth already been mapped by 4000BC, by a civilization that has been forgotten, as analysis of the Piri Reis map and the theories of Charles Hapgood suggest?

Comment by Howard on April 10, 2014 at 4:18pm

Ancient Egyptian Inscription Describes Cataclysm (Apr 9)

The inscription on a six-foot-tall calcite stone, called the Tempest Stela, describes rain, darkness and "the sky being in storm without cessation, louder than the cries of the masses".

University of Chicago’s Oriental Institute researcher Robert Ritner said the text reports that the Egyptian pharaoh Ahmose witnessed the disaster—the description of events in the stela text is frightening.

The stela’s text describes the “sky being in storm” with “a tempest of rain” for a period of days. The passages also describe bodies floating down the Nile like “skiffs of papyrus.”

Importantly, the text refers to events affecting both the delta region and the area of Egypt further south along the Nile. “This was clearly a major storm, and different from the kinds of heavy rains that Egypt periodically receives,” Ritner said.

Researchers believe the unusual weather patterns described on the slab were the result of a massive volcano explosion at Thera, the present day island of Santorini in the Mediterranean Sea.

If the stela does describe the aftermath of the Thera catastrophe, the correct dating of the stela itself and Ahmose’s reign, currently thought to be about 1550 B.C., could actually be 30 to 50 years earlier.

“This is important to scholars of the ancient Near East and eastern Mediterranean, generally because the chronology that archaeologists use is based on the lists of Egyptian pharaohs, and this new information could adjust those dates,” said Moeller, assistant professor of Egyptian archaeology at the Oriental Institute, who specializes in research on ancient urbanism and chronology.

In 2006, radiocarbon testing of an olive tree buried under volcanic residue placed the date of the Thera eruption at 1621-1605 B.C. Until now, the archeological evidence for the date of the Thera eruption seemed at odds with the radiocarbon dating, explained Oriental Institute postdoctoral scholar Felix Hoeflmayer, who has studied the chronological implications related to the eruption. However, if the date of Ahmose’s reign is earlier than previously believed, the resulting shift in chronology “might solve the whole problem,” Hoeflmayer said.

Sources

http://greece.greekreporter.com/2014/04/09/oldest-weather-report-re...

http://news.uchicago.edu/article/2014/04/01/world-s-oldest-weather-...

http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/worlds-oldest-weather-report-found-3500-ye...

http://www.techtimes.com/articles/5087/20140404/ancient-egyptian-st...

Comment by Mark on February 26, 2014 at 10:31am

Visit 11,000-year-old colony under Baltic Sea (11,000 years = 3 pole shifts back)

http://www.ndtv.com/article/offbeat/visit-11-000-year-old-colony-un...

In a scintillating find, an 11,000-year-old settlement has been unearthed under Baltic Sea near Sweden.

This is a collection of well preserved artifacts left by nomads some 11,000 years ago.

The site was in fact some sort of a dump in which nomadic Swedes discarded objects, according to a report in The Local.

Billed as 'Sweden's Atlantis', the site is buried 52 feet below the surface at Hano, a sandy bay off the coast of Skane County in Sweden.

The findings include wood pieces, flint tools, animal horns, ropes, a harpoon carving made from an animal bone and an ancient cattle which became extinct in the early 1600s, added the report.

"There's wood and antlers and other implements that were thrown in there," Bjorn Nilsson, archaeology professor at Sodertorn University in Sweden was quoted as saying.

"If the settlement was on dry land, we would only have the stone-based things, nothing organic," added Nilsson who team is excavating the site for a potential burial site.

Comment by Howard on February 22, 2014 at 3:51am

On both sides of the Atlantic, sunken forests off the coast of Wales and New Hampshire have all been dated at around the time of the last pole shift @3600 years ago.

"During each Pole Shift, each passage with consequent crustal shift, the UK experiences sinking on its western side. Ireland, Scotland, Wales, and even England will experience drastic sinking during this pending passage. That this has happened in the past can be seen by looking under the waves, and seeing ocean bottom that has recently been land, below."  ZetaTalk Chat Q&A: February 12, 2013

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"During every pole shift some land, particularly coastal land near a widening ocean rift, submerges. This has been the case on the eastern seaboard of the US, and in the Caribbean. Traces of a submerged civilization can be seen under the waves off Bermuda - roads, sign posts, and walls."  Zetatalk: Submerged Roads

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Comment by Howard on February 16, 2014 at 1:02am

Another 3600-Year-Old Egyptian Burial Bears Winged Globe Art (Feb 14)

Newly discovered Sarcophagus (above) is decorated with birds' feathers that resemble winded globe design inside Egyptian burial chamber discovered in January 2014 (below) - both 3,600 years old.

A beautifully decorated sarcophagus of a 3,600-year-old mummy has been unearthed in Luxor.

The sarcophagus is engraved with hieroglyphs and decorated with inscriptions of birds' feathers on its lid and sides that have led experts to refer to it as ‘Feathers Sargophagi’.

It is believed the mummy was a high-ranking official but Egyptologists will now work to discover its identity.

Mohammed Ibrahim, Egypt's Antiquities Minister, said in a statement that the preserved wooden sarcophagus dates back to 1,600 BC, when the Pharaonic 17th Dynasty reigned.

Spanish archaeologists made the find alongside experts from the Egyptian antiquities mission.

Antiquities department head Ali Al-Asfar said the sarcophagus still bears its original colouring and writings.

Measuring 7ft 11inches (242cm) long, it is said to be in very good condition and the titles of the deceased are thought to be engraved on it, which experts are working on identifying.

Source

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2559305/Unearthed-St...

http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/mystery-pharaoh-senebkays-tomb-discovered-...

Comment by Mark on January 28, 2014 at 9:34am

7,000 years ago (2 pole shifts back) a tsunami generated west of Norway hit ‘most coastlines bordering the eastern North Atlantic.’

Sediment washed inland by the tsunami has been found in Norway, Scotland and the Shetland Islands, up to 80 miles inland.

The cause of the tsunami is reported to be the collapse of a 290 mile stretch of the continental shelf west of Norway, which is surprisingly close to the true cause – the widening of the Atlantic rift during the poleshift which occurred before the most recent one, approximately 7,200 years ago.

The article also states that, at the time 7,000 years ago, Scotland was connected to Denmark and the Netherlands via a low-lying land bridge (known as Doggerland), highlighting another effect of poleshifts – the North Atlantic stretch which caused the land to sink, forever separating those countries.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsunamis_affecting_the_British_Isles#S...

Comment by Howard on January 28, 2014 at 12:44am

An ancient settlement dating back approximately 3 pole shifts recently found in the Baltic Sea.

11,000-Year-Old Settlement Discovered Under Baltic Sea (Jan 27)

Divers in Sweden have discovered a rare collection of Stone Age artefacts buried deep beneath the Baltic Sea.

Archaeologists believe the relics were left by Swedish nomads 11,000 years ago and the discovery may be evidence of one of the oldest settlements ever found in the Nordic region.

Some of the relics are so well preserved, reports have dubbed the find 'Sweden’s Atlantis' and suggested the settlement may have been swallowed whole by the sea in the same way as the mythical island in the Atlantic Ocean.

The artefacts were discovered by Professor Bjorn Nilsson from Soderton University, and a team from Lunds University, during an archaeological dive at Hano, off the coast of Skane County in Sweden.

Buried 16 metres below the surface, Nilsson uncovered wood, flint tools, animal horns and ropes.

Among the most notable items found include a harpoon carving made from an animal bone, and the bones of an ancient animal called aurochs.

Many of the artefacts have been preserved because the diving location is rich in a sediment called gyttja.

Black, gel-like Gyttja is formed when peat begins to decay. As the peat is buried, the amount of oxygen drops and it is thought this lack of oxygen prevented the organic artefacts from being lost.

Nilsson told The Local: ‘Around 11,000 years ago there was a build-up in the area - a lagoon of sorts - and all the tree and bone pieces are preserved in it.

'If the settlement was on dry land we would only have the stone-based things, nothing organic.’

The dive was part of a three-year excavation partially funded by the Swedish National Heritage Board.

Archaeologists are continuing the dig, and are now particularly interested to see whether there is also an ancient burial site in the region.

Source

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2546720/Swedish-dive...

http://www.thelocal.se/20140124/swedes-dive-in-stone-age-excavate-s...

"As we have stated in ZetaTalk, the prior shift moved the North Pole from Greenland to its present location. Prior to that, it was over the East Siberian Sea, having pulled Siberia northward where the largest number of mammoth dieoff occurred. Tracing the North Pole over the past few shifts, one sees that it spent a time over Scandinavia where it resided between the 4th and 5th shift back. When it moved from Scandinavia into the Arctic north of Siberia, Europe warmed up, its glaciers melting. Prior to Scandinavia, the North Pole centered over North America."

ZetaTalk: Wandering Poles

Comment by Mark on January 23, 2014 at 11:10am

The Indus Valley Civilization, Indus River, India/Pakistan - a thriving, well organized society of over 5 million people, which died out suddenly 3600 years ago.

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Around five thousand years ago, an important civilization developed on the Indus River floodplain. From about 2600 B.C. to 1700 B.C. a vast number of settlements were built on the banks of the Indus River and surrounding areas. These settlements cover a remarkable region, almost 1.25 million kilometres of land which is today part of Afghanistan, Pakistan and north-western India.
The cities of the Indus Valley Civilization were well-organised and solidly built out of brick and stone. Their
drainage systems, wells and water storage systems were the most sophisticated in the ancient world. They also developed systems of weights and trade. They made jewellery and game pieces and toys for their children. From looking at the structures and objects which survive we are able to learn about the people who lived and worked in these cities so long ago.

http://www.ancientindia.co.uk/indus/home_set.html

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A definite reason for the sudden decline of the Indus Valley Civilization is still elusive, since there are no reliable records for the period, historians can only speculate. All excavations however do prove that the decline occurred suddenly between 1800 BC and 1700 BC.

http://library.thinkquest.org/C006203/cgi-bin/stories.cgi?article=d...

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A possible natural reason for the IVC's decline is connected with climate change that is also signalled for the neighbouring areas of the Middle East: The Indus valley climate grew significantly cooler and drier from about 1800 BCE, linked to a general weakening of the monsoon at that time. Alternatively, a crucial factor may have been the disappearance of substantial portions of the Ghaggar Hakra river system. A tectonic event may have diverted the system's sources toward the Ganges Plain, though there is complete uncertainty about the date of this event, as most settlements inside Ghaggar-Hakra river beds have not yet been dated. The actual reason for decline might be any combination of these factors. New geological research is now being conducted by a group led by Peter Clift, from the University of Aberdeen, to investigate how the courses of rivers have changed in this region since 8000 years ago, to test whether climate or river reorganizations are responsible for the decline of the Harappan. A 2004 paper indicated that the isotopes of the Ghaggar-Hakra system do not come from the Himalayan glaciers, and were rain-fed instead, contradicting a Harappan time mighty "Sarasvati" river.[83]

A research team led by the geologist Liviu Giosan of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution also concluded that climate change in form of the easterward migration of the monsoons led to the decline of the IVC.[84] The team's findings were published in PNAS in May 2012.[85][86] According to their theory, the slow eastward migration of the monsoons across Asia initially allowed the civilization to develop. The monsoon-supported farming led to large agricultural surpluses, which in turn supported the development of cities. The IVC residents did not develop irrigation capabilities, relying mainly on the seasonal monsoons. As the monsoons kept shifting eastward, the water supply for the agricultural activities dried up. The residents then migrated towards the Ganges basin in the east, where they established smaller villages and isolated farms. The small surplus produced in these small communities did not allow development of trade, and the cities died out

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indus_Valley_Civilization#Collapse_and...

Comment by Howard on January 22, 2014 at 11:55pm

A recent discovery of an unknown Egyptian Pharaoh who lived approximately 3,650 years ago just prior to a 100-year period of fragmentation and upheaval. Note the winged globe depictions in the burial chamber.

Mysterious 3,650 Year-old Pharaoh and "Lost Dynasty" Found in Egypt (Jan 15)

A previously unknown pharaoh and his burial place have been unearthed amid the tombs of other Egyptian kings, and archaeologists say the find could lead to still more royal discoveries.

The pharaoh has never featured in ancient Egyptian history books, but Senebkay's name was found inscribed in hieroglyphics written inside a royal cartouche, the Egyptian ministry said in a statement.

The pharaoh's name, Senebkay, was found inscribed on the wall of a burial chamber that's part of the Abydos archaeological site, near the southern city of Sohag. Fragments of the name appeared on one list of Egyptian kings and queens, but no other trace of Senebkay had been found until now, said Ali Asfar, head of antiquities for the Egyptian government.

"This was the first time in history to discover the king," Asfar told NBC News on Wednesday.

He and other archaeologists say Senebkay lived roughly 3,650 years ago, during the second intermediate period of ancient Egyptian history. That was an era when several rulers vied for power — setting the stage for the rise of Egypt's New Kingdom around 1550 B.C.

Senebkay's tomb was found earlier this month by a team of archaeologists led by the University of Pennsylvania's Josef Wegner. They came upon the structure while excavating the adjacent tomb of an earlier pharaoh, King Sobekhotep I.

The newfound tomb contains what appear to be the plundered remains of a royal burial, including the pharaoh's pulled-apart skeleton. Senebkay was apparently 5-foot-10 and died in his mid- to late 40s, archaeologists said.

The photo at left shows decoration in the burial chamber of Senebkay. At right, archaeologists examine Senebkay's skeleton. He was originally mummified, but his body was pulled apart by ancient tomb robbers.

The discovery of a reused burial chest helped date the discovery.

The tomb of pharaoh Senebkay is modest in scale. An important discovery was the badly decayed remains of Senebkay's canopic chest. This chest was made of cedar wood that had been reused from the nearby tomb of an earlier Egyptian King - Sobekhotep I and still bore the name of that king, covered over by gilding.

Such reuse of objects provides evidence of the limited resources and isolated economic situation of the Abydos Kingdom.

Archaeologists survey the tomb of a previously unknown pharaoh, Senebkay, and its surroundings at the Abydos site.

The reuse of materials from previous reigns and the relatively rustic artistry suggest a lack of stability and wealth, Wegner said. “It suggests that the king had economic challenges, which has to do with the period of struggle and fragmentation of kingdom.”

Wegner believes he will find much more when he returns to excavate in the spring.

"Where there are king’s tombs, there are also queen's tombs, and tombs of high officials of the royal court,” he told NBC News.

The discovery has given an interesting look at a period of fragmentation and political conflict, struggling with rival kingdoms of the north and south.”

Sources

http://www.nbcnews.com/science/mystery-pharaoh-his-tomb-identified-...

http://news.discovery.com/history/ancient-egypt/mystery-pharaoh-fou...

http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/mystery-pharaoh-senebkays-tomb-discovered-...

http://www.penn.museum/press-releases/1032-pharaoh-senebkay-discove...